ISSN electrónico: 2007-8951
Volumen 48/ Número 190, julio-septiembre 2017

Social Innovation for “Smart” Territories: Fiction or Reality?

Jairo Parada

This essay explores the theoretical arguments regarding the existence of “smart” territories, a recently-developed concept based on notions related to the knowledge society and knowledge economy, sustainable development, and social inclusion. This paper examines the preconditions necessary to make it possible for this type of territorial space to emerge in relation to the economic development underpinning it, as well as the right type of social structure, qualities required for human agency, and the social innovations demanded for such purpose. Finally, as a case study, this paper provides an empirical analysis of such conditions on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, drawing some final conclusions and recommendations from it.

Key Words: Caribbean Region of Colombia, smart cities, urban sustainability, innovation, technological development, governance.


Software Companies in Mexico and their Ties to Local Development

Jordy Micheli, Rubén Oliver

This paper sets out to characterize the business dynamics of the software industries located in Mexico City, Monterrey, and Tijuana, beginning with a survey administered by the authors to 175 companies located in the aforementioned cities in 2014. The literature about this industry in Mexico has tended to favor theoretical approaches to innovation and learning and their subsequent application to local cases. This work relies on the logic of clusters (Porter, 1998) and therefore analyzes relationships with the local market in terms of sales and usage of human, financial, and informational resources, revealing regional differences in business dynamics. One important difference is the weight of local competition in Mexico City as compared with the two other cities.

Key Words: Software industry, local development, industrial clusters, Mexico City, Monterrey, Tijuana.


Technology Companies and Public Policy for Regional Development in Brazil

María del Mar Miralles Quirós, José Luis Miralles Quirós, Julio Daza Izquierdo

This study aims to analyze the growth of technology companies in Brazil in 2002-2013. To do so, we use Gibrat’s law, otherwise known as the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE) and the panel data model, which allows us to control unobservable heterogeneity. However, unlike the previous empirical evidence, this study takes into account the effect of the recent financial crisis and profitability on business growth. The main results show that in times of crisis, public policies could allot some resources available to help some of the smaller, more profitable, and least indebted technology companies to boost economic growth.

Key Words: Gibrat’s law, panel data, business growth, economic crisis, technology companies, public policy.


The State and Financial Capital in Argentina Between 2002 and 2012. Public Debt

Marisa Bordón

In order to elucidate the role of financial capital in the dynamics of the Argentine economy between 2002 and 2012, this paper analyzes several aspects of the relationship between financial capital and the State. “Debt reduction” partially dismantled public debt as the backbone of speculative activity, although it maintained its profitability and priority position in economic policy decision-making. On the other hand, financial regulation contributed to keeping the mechanism of debt and did not significantly alter the central role played by financial capital.

Key Words: Economic policy, public debt, financial capital, the State, debt reduction, financial regulation.


The (Incomplete and Brief) Return of Industrial Policy: The Case of Argentina 2003-2015

Pablo Lavarello

Against the backdrop of global economic growth, the widening of technology gaps, and the adverse evolution of prices for industrialization, Argentina is one of the countries in Latin America that has seen the (partial and temporary) return of public policy to the economic policy agenda. This paper poses the hypothesis that in spite of the revival of industrial policy actions and instruments to promote technological capabilities and foster a framework of incentives favorable to industrialization, a new industrial policy has failed to emerge in light of weak coordination and the absence of a senior body in the hierarchy to implement it.

Key Words: Industrial policy, industrialization, technological capabilities, planning, fiscal and financial incentives.


Talent Migration as a Development Strategy: Mexico-Japan

Alejandro Méndez Rodríguez

The international migration of qualified human resources is one of the pillars of immigration governance. Immigration policies set instruments for organizing and managing these human resources to attract skilled workers and international students in a context of global competitiveness. The main component influencing the dynamics of international migration flows to Japan is the transnational labor market of skilled resources, as well as the mechanisms that shape it. The objective of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic factors that shape, drive, and lend context to the mobility of skilled workers. The main question to answer would be: What are the characteristics of the main factors shaping migration flows between Mexico and Japan?

Key Words: Skilled migration, geographic mobility, human resources, socioeconomic factors, labor markets, migration policy.


The Liquidity Trap, History, and Research Trends: A Bibliometric Analysis

Eva Ugarte, Josefina Léon, Gilberto Parra

In a liquidity trap, the conventional expansionary monetary policy is not an effective way to stimulate economic activity. The orthodox Keynesian model poses a situation of this sort as an extreme case, which has been used to justify the importance of fiscal policy. This paper aims to conduct a qualitative and quantitative analysis (using bibliometric techniques) to explore the recent literature about the liquidity trap. The way in which the number of publications in the period 1973-2015 evolved points to the economic events (Japanese depression in the nineteen-nineties and the 2007-2008 global financial crisis) that revived academic interest in studying this topic. We believe that these results offer a very accurate schematic overview of the current research agenda.

Key Words: Liquidity trap, nominal interest rate, monetary policy, fiscal policy, bibliometrics, Keynesian theory.