ISSN electrónico: 2007-8951
Volumen 50/ Número 197, abril-junio 2019

Life-Cycle Hypothesis in Mexico: An Analysis of Income by Gender
Mary C. Villeda Santana and Isalia Nava Bolaños

This paper analyzes the income profile of Mexican households. In order to do so, a semi-parametric model was estimated using gender of the head of the household. The results indicate that, due to the age effect, the income profile of households with a female head of household forms a flat, inverted U, in contrast to the proposition put forth by the life-cycle hypothesis. Conversely, income patterns of male-headed households were consistent with the form established in the hypothesis. Unlike its female counterpart, this profile was unaffected by family structure. This confirms that income is lower in female-headed households throughout the life cycle.

Key Words: household income; life cycle hypothesis; female and male-headed households; semi-parametric model; pseudo-panel method.

Factorial, Personal, and Wealth Inequality in Peru, 1950-2016
Germán Alarco, César Castillo and Favio Leiva

Distribution of factorial income, personal income, and wealth in Peru is highly inequitable. In the 1960s, wage share was higher than at international average. It improved from the 1990s onwards, but without reaching previous levels. The corrected Gini personal income coefficient exceeded the official trend. The levels of inequality in productive wealth and assets distribution were higher than those of personal income distribution, in accordance with the international literature on the subject. A proxy of wealth distribution was elaborated, one which factored in both natural persons’ and businesses’ bank deposits in the national financial system. Some of the results are then compared with those of other Latin American economies.

Key Words: factorial distribution of income; personal income; Gini coefficient; wealth distribution; financial system.

Productive and Social Inclusion in Ecuador
Wilson Santiago Albuja Echeverría

Poverty can be reduced in two ways: via income generation or via increased access to public goods and services. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for quantifying the percentage of the population that live in double inclusion, namely, in productive and social inclusion in Ecuador during the 2009-2017 study period. The results obtained indicate an asymmetry between social and productive progress. The advances made in education, housing, and basic services stand in contrast to the challenge to secure dignified employment, a situation made worse in rural areas. In 2017, the national level of double inclusion was recorded at 35.3%, non-productive social inclusion at 31.8%, non-social productive inclusion at 6.8%, and exclusion at 26%.

Key Words: productive inclusion; social inclusion; income poverty; multidimensional poverty; inequality.

The Applied-Ethical Structural Synthesis of International Development
Nikos Astroulakis

The paper challenges the mainstream stance in the study of applied ethics in international development. Applied ethics is positioned at the macro-social level of global ethics while a specific codification is attempted by formulating international development based on its structural synthesis, in a threefold level: First, the structural synthesis –associated with the framework of existing international development policy– can be found in the ‘market relations’. Second, the analysis specifies the policies applied at the national level and the role of nation-state policy. Third, the paper criticizes the international development institutions’ policies. In each of the levels mentioned above, the analysis reveals the fundamental policy theory issues of neoclassical economics, as the intellectual defender of free market economics.

Key Words: applied ethics; international development; neo-classical economics; free-market economy; Nation-State policy; neo-liberal institutionalism.

Evaluating Hydrocarbon Exploration and Extraction Contracts in Mexico, 2015-2017
Víctor Rodríguez Padilla

An estimation is made of the way oil revenue and production volume are distributed between the State and the contractor, in accordance with the provisions of the contracts awarded. First, contractual modalities, the tax system, and the bidding mechanism are described. Then, the physical and economic distribution of production is analyzed. It is concluded that the State receives an average of 72.4% of the revenue when the contractor is efficient, as opposed to 56.6% when the contractor is inefficient. The State receives no production from licensing and in shared production contracts with inefficient costs, the State recovers 30% of revenue.

Key Words: exploration contracts; production contracts; hydrocarbons; bidding rounds; oil revenue.

Renewable Energy in Argentina as an Energy and Industrial Policy Strategy
María Eugenia Castelao Caruana

With the enactment of a new regime regarding the promotion of electrical energy from renewable sources in 2015, Argentina took up the transition towards a more sustainable and diversified energy matrix. Since then, national energy policy has driven the creation of a competitive domestic market for Energy from Renewable Sources (ERS). Meanwhile, industrial policy has focused on promoting the transfer of technology and local industry. This paper analyzes the orientation of these policies, the coherence of their objectives, and the immediate results. Energy policy and industrial policies designed for ERS develop at different speeds and with little coordination, making it necessary for national industry to participate in its value chains.

Key Words: renewable energy; electrical energy; energy policy; renewable sources; industrial policy; technology.

A Historical Review of Mining Automation in Mexico
Ruth Robles and Guillermo Foladori

The increase of mining in certain historical periods can be attributed to the incidence of various factors, such as the price of metals, technological development, and economic and environmental policies. This paper reviews the most important periods of mining development in Mexico, examining in depth the most recent period: the implementation of automation. The majority of social analyses related to mining have focused on the concept of neo-extractivism and have emphasized economic policies and prices. This paper’s contribution is a review of the data of the revolution in the mining sector’s productive forces. This is an aspect that may be as important as metal prices and the sector’s economic policies when seeking to understand the current situation.

Key Words: mining; automation; gold and silver exploitation; technological de‑ velopment; translational companies; foreign investment.