ISSN electrónico: 2007-8951
Volumen 49/ Número 195, octubre-diciembre 2018

New Technologies: The Bipolarization of Employment and Job Income?

Pierre Salama

The digital revolution has disrupted how companies behave, their environment, and their consumption patterns, while changing the job and wage structure in the sectors in which they operate. On its own, this revolution has entailed a major upheaval with no end in sight, which is why it is better to learn to manage it than deny it or pump the brakes. Latin American countries use new technologies to different extents, but do not produce them. The result is negative fallout for jobs and employment, a burgeoning informal sector, and higher job income in advanced countries and in the emerging Asian economies that do make these technologies.

Key Words: Latin America; digital revolution; employment, job income; Asian countries; emerging economies.

The Impact of New Technologies on Jobs in Mexico

Isaac Minian and Ángel Martínez Monroy

This study evaluates job vulnerability to the advent of new technologies. Using the Frey and Osborne (2013) method, the estimate is that 63% of all jobs and 64.5% of manufacturing jobs in Mexico are at risk of being automated, making the least skilled workers the most vulnerable. Only the technical feasibility of automation was taken into account in this estimate; estimating the number of jobs that would truly be displaced would require analyzing economic, political, and social factors. Historically, the main consequence of automation has consisted of major changes to the job structure and widespread unemployment. Market mechanisms and public policy have been able to offset the impact of technology shocks, so that even as technological change displaces workers, it also creates new jobs by furnishing investment opportunities.

Key Words: Manufacturing jobs; technological change; investment; government policy.

The Effect of Innovation on Development and Growth in Mexico: An Approach Using Patents

Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales, Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández and David J. Jefferson

This paper introduces an empirical model drawing on data generated over a decade of analysis, aiming to explain the impact of intellectual property by using patent records as an indicator. The model moreover correlates patenting with economic development and growth in Mexico. The pattern that emerges is a positive tie between greater investment in research and development (R+D) on the one hand, and economic development and growth on the other, manifest in the rising volume of national patent applications. The development and implementation of public policies designed to augment intellectual capital and innovation could benefit an emerging economy like that of Mexico in countless ways.

Key Words: Patents; economic development; technological change; I+D; linear regression analysis.

Prebisch, the State, and the “Weakness of the Essential”

Víctor Ramiro Fernández and Emilia Ormaechea

Beginning with the recognition of the centrality of the State in Raúl Prebisch’s oeuvre, while at the same time pointing out its limitations when it comes to conceptualizing the peripheral condition of Latin American states, this paper analyzes how the role of the State changed in the author’s early body of work at the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Aiming to explain the shift and acknowledge the underpinnings of their peripheral condition, theoretical and analytical elements come to the fore in recognition of the conflicting dynamics that have historically acted on –and fed back into– Latin American states, shaping certain structures and forms of involvement that prevented them from running an industrialization strategy as the broader structuralist school, and Prebisch in particular, would have envisaged it.

Key Words: Latin American states; Raúl Prebisch; economic thought; center-periphery; structuralism; capitalist accumulation.

Financialization and Economic Development in the Dominican Republic

Rosalía Calvo Clúa

In recent decades, productive and financial structures in the Dominican Republic have displayed traits similar to those throughout the region. In the financial sphere, there are similarities that line up with the financialization they have undergone, but with certain distinctive nuances. Analyzing the implications of this process is vital to understanding development in the country, as well as to making effective economic policies that achieve sustainable growth levels.

Key Words: Financialization; financial system; foreign direct investment; economic development.

What Drives Debt Defaults in Microfinance?
The Case of the Asociación Civil Avanzar

Matías Golman and Marta Bekerman

This paper sets out to elucidate the variables driving higher or lower rates of microfinance borrowers defaulting on paying back their loans in a case study of Asociación Civil Avanzar. We analyze the database held by this Argentinean civil society organization, examining the most salient data on borrowers, including personal, household, and loan information, to explain their behavior with respect to paying their installments. Interesting conclusions emerged that could help make progress down the path toward solving reporting problems when institutions similar to those in this study are deciding whether to grant a loan or not.

Key Words: Microfinance; default; borrowers; microcredit; financial services; econometric analysis.

The Aerospace Industry in Mexico: Characteristics and Challenges in Sonora

Miguel Ángel Vázquez and Carmen Bocanegra

The objective of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge about the situation of and challenges facing the aerospace industry in the state of Sonora, Mexico. To do so, various interviews were conducted with company officials who shared results like the following: the industry has moved toward districts that offer the best conditions to operate; the march of technological flexibility in processes calls for a review of how institutions of higher education in the state are training human capital. Moreover, despite ranking in the country’s top five states in aerospace production, the integration of productive value chains still leaves much to be desired, and is concentrated at Level 2 of the supply chains.

Key Words: High-tech industries; productive processes; supply and value chains; technological innovation; training; skilled labor.